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Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

Chapter 2. Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets

Chapter 2. Developments in the Global Economy and Financial Markets »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2008 : Making the Global Economy Work for All

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 October 2008

ISBN: 9781589067660

Keywords: financial sector, financial markets, balance of payments, debt relief, financial stability

FIGURE 2.1 Real GDP growth (Percent change from a year earlier) Foreign exchange markets were also affected b...

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Fiscal adjustment, by its very nature, affects income inequality. It does so through the direct effect of tax increases and government spending cuts on disposable income...

Chapter 4. Fiscal Redistribution in Developing Countries: Overview of Policy Issues and Options

Chapter 4. Fiscal Redistribution in Developing Countries: Overview of Policy Issues and Options »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction The developing world has experienced sustained economic growth and poverty reduction during the past two decades. Globally, income inequality has also been on a steady d...

Chapter 6. Functional Income Distribution and Its Role in Explaining Inequality

Chapter 6. Functional Income Distribution and Its Role in Explaining Inequality »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction In the years preceding the global economic and financial crisis, analysts and policymakers wondered about diverging trends between aggregate measures of economic perform...

CHAPTER 2 IMF Country, Global, and Regional Surveillance

CHAPTER 2 IMF Country, Global, and Regional Surveillance »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2000 : Making the Global Economy Work for All

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557758439

Keywords: central bank, financial sector, financial statements, debt relief, balance of payments

Central to the IMF’s mandate of improving the operation of the international monetary system is its oversight (or “surveillance”) of the economic and financial policies of its member countries. IMF surveilla...

Chapter 17. Income Inequality, Fiscal Decentralization, and Transfer Dependency

Chapter 17. Income Inequality, Fiscal Decentralization, and Transfer Dependency »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Within the context of reigniting postcrisis macroeconomic growth, income inequality has emerged as a topic of significant interest for both academics and policymakers (B...

Finances, Organization, and Accountability

Finances, Organization, and Accountability »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2015 : Tackling Challenges Together

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2015

ISBN: 9781475544886

Keywords: debt, imf, tax, interest, investment

In FY2015, the IMF operated within an unchanged budget envelope in real terms. This was the third year in row. Greater utilization and reallocation of the budget enabled the IMF to meet new demands. The IMF’...

Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Source: Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Volume/Issue: 2012/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): David Coady , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 June 2012

ISBN: 9781475504828

Keywords: Fiscal consolidation, Developed countries, Developing countries, Fiscal policy, Government expenditures, Income inequality, Income distribution, Taxation, Unemployment, tax

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

3. Inequality and Economic Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

3. Inequality and Economic Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Source: Regional Economic Outlook, October 2015 : Sub-Saharan Africa

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513597331

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; commodity exporters; oil-exporting countries; competitiveness; trade integration; income inequality; gender inequality

Sub-Saharan Africa has among the highest levels of inequality—both income and gender—in the world, even after accounting for the lower levels of per capita income in the region. With growing international ev...