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Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

Central Bank Autonomy: Lessons from Global Trends

Central Bank Autonomy: Lessons from Global Trends »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 56, No. 2

Volume: 56

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 June 2009

ISBN: 9781589067950

Keywords: labor productivity growth, employment, labor productivity, labor shares

China’s growth performance since the start of economic reforms in 1978 has been impressive, but the gains have not been distributed equally across provinces. We use a nonparametric approach to analyze the va...

CHAPTER 1. ASSESSING RISKS TO GLOBAL FINANCIAL STABILITY

CHAPTER 1. ASSESSING RISKS TO GLOBAL FINANCIAL STABILITY »

Source: Global Financial Stability Report, October 2007 : Financial Market Turbulence Causes, Consequences, and Policies

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066762

Keywords: capital inflows, hedge funds, hedge, risk management, financial stability

Following an extended period of exceptionally favorable financial market conditions, international markets have entered a difficult period. The current episode of turbulence represents the first significant...

Chapter 4. Changing Global Financial Structures: Can They Improve Economic Outcomes?

Chapter 4. Changing Global Financial Structures: Can They Improve Economic Outcomes? »

Source: Global Financial Stability Report, October 2012 : Summary version

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 November 2012

ISBN: 9781616353902

Keywords: bond, banking, bonds, financial stability, credit

Summary The global financial crisis has required policymakers to reconsider the role that the structure of their financial systems plays in achieving good economic outcomes. A number...

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Fiscal adjustment, by its very nature, affects income inequality. It does so through the direct effect of tax increases and government spending cuts on disposable income...

Chapter 4. Fiscal Redistribution in Developing Countries: Overview of Policy Issues and Options

Chapter 4. Fiscal Redistribution in Developing Countries: Overview of Policy Issues and Options »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction The developing world has experienced sustained economic growth and poverty reduction during the past two decades. Globally, income inequality has also been on a steady d...

Chapter 6. Functional Income Distribution and Its Role in Explaining Inequality

Chapter 6. Functional Income Distribution and Its Role in Explaining Inequality »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction In the years preceding the global economic and financial crisis, analysts and policymakers wondered about diverging trends between aggregate measures of economic perform...

CHAPTER 8. Global Imbalances: In Midstream?

CHAPTER 8. Global Imbalances: In Midstream? »

Source: Reconstructing the World Economy

Series: Seminar Volumes

Author(s): Il SaKong , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2010

ISBN: 9781589069770

Keywords: inflation, current account, financial system, central bank, monetary policy

Before the crisis, there were strong arguments for reducing global imbalances. As a result of the crisis, there have been significant changes in saving and investment patterns across the world and imbalances...

CHAPTER 4 Global Liquidity Expansion: Effects on “Receiving” Economies and Policy Response Options

CHAPTER 4 Global Liquidity Expansion: Effects on “Receiving” Economies and Policy Response Options »

Source: Global Financial Stability Report, April 2010 : Meeting New Challenges to Stability and Building a Safer System

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 2010

ISBN: 9781589069169

Keywords: loans, capital inflows, interest, debt, financial stability

Summary The transmission of abundant global liquidity and the accompanying surge in capital flows to economies with comparatively higher interest rates and a stronger growth outlook...

CHAPTER III THE GLOBALIZATION OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR FINANCIAL STABILITY

CHAPTER III THE GLOBALIZATION OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR FINANCIAL STABILITY »

Source: Global Financial Stability Report, April 2007 : Market Developments and Issues

Series: Global Financial Stability Report

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066373

Keywords: hedge funds, hedge, financial stability, bond, banking

The globalization of financial institutions appears to have accelerated over the past decade and has important implications for financial stability. 1 This chapter reviews develop...