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Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

Global Dispersion of Current Accounts: Is the Universe Expanding?

Global Dispersion of Current Accounts: Is the Universe Expanding? »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 56, No. 3

Volume: 56

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 July 2009

ISBN: 9781589068209

Keywords: trade openness, trade liberalization, import duties, transition economies, trade barriers

Studies of the impact of trade openness on growth are based either on crosscountry analysis—which lacks transparency—or case studies—which lack statistical rigor. This paper applies a transpare...

Global Implications of Lower Oil Prices

Global Implications of Lower Oil Prices »

Source: Global Implications of Lower Oil Prices

Volume/Issue: 2015/15

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Aasim Husain , Rabah Arezki , Peter Breuer , Vikram Haksar , Thomas Helbling , Paulo Medas , and Martin Sommer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2015

ISBN: 9781513532417

Keywords: Oil price, fuel taxes and subsidies, fiscal vulnerabilities, external vulnerabilities, exchange rate regime, oil, prices, price, oil prices, energy

The sharp drop in oil prices is one of the most important global economic developments over the past year. The SDN finds that (i) supply factors have played a somewhat larger role than demand factors in driving the...

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment

II The Setting for Adjustment: Initial Positions and Global Environment »

Source: IMF Conditionality : Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements, Part I: Key Issues and Findings

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Miguel Savastano , Adam Bennett , María Carkovic S. , Mauro Mecagni , James John , and Susan Schadler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1995

ISBN: 9781557754929

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, capital inflows, exchange rate, real interest rates

Almost without exception, the initial positions of the countries under review were dire. Most were suffering the effects of long-standing institutional and structural weaknesses, fiscal excesses, and deficie...

Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy »

Source: Income Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Volume/Issue: 2012/8

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): David Coady , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 June 2012

ISBN: 9781475504828

Keywords: Fiscal consolidation, Developed countries, Developing countries, Fiscal policy, Government expenditures, Income inequality, Income distribution, Taxation, Unemployment, tax

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...