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Brazil

Boom, Bust, and Road to Recovery

Brazil is at crossroads, emerging slowly from a historic recession that was preceded by a huge economic boom.

The Future of China's Bond Market

This book analyzes segments of China's bond market, from sovereign, policy bank, and credit bonds, to the rapidly growing local government bond market.

Albania: Supplementary Information for the Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review

Albania: Supplementary Information for the Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review »

Source: ALBANIA : Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review

Volume/Issue: 2005/267

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 August 2005

ISBN: 9781451800821

Keywords: debt, budget, interest, external debt, domestic credit

This paper discusses key findings of the Sixth Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) for Albania. The macroeconomic performance of the Albanian economy has bee...

Albania: Third Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review

Albania: Third Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review »

Source: Albania : Third Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Request for a Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion, and Financing Assurances Review

Volume/Issue: 2004/22

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 January 2004

ISBN: 9781451800678

Keywords: budget, debt, interest, external debt, revenues

The economy has thus far been fairly resilient to recent political uncertainties, although the reform process has been adversely affected. Continued growth will depend to a large extent on higher private investment...

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution

APPENDIX I Incidence Analyses and Income Redistribution »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Most studies of the income distributional effects of public policy fall within the category of “incidence analyses” of taxation and expenditure. They either analyze the effects of particular measures or, if...

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Various measures can be used to characterize global supply chains. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) were the first to measure the value of imported contents embodied in a country’s exp...

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changes in export composition by trading partner strongly reflect the emergence of EMEs (Figure A4.1). As a consequence, those countries more strongly exposed to EMEs generally expe...

An Approach to the Estimation of Inequality in Reserve Distribution

An Approach to the Estimation of Inequality in Reserve Distribution »

Source: IMF Staff papers : Volume 21 No. 3

Volume: XXI

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1974

ISBN: 9781451969344

...

Are Asset Price Guarantees Useful for Preventing Sudden Stops?A Quantitative Investigation of the Globalization Hazard-Moral Hazard Tradeoff1

Are Asset Price Guarantees Useful for Preventing Sudden Stops?A Quantitative Investigation of the Globalization Hazard-Moral Hazard Tradeoff1 »

Source: Are Asset Price Guarantees Useful for Preventing Sudden Stops?A Quantitative Investigation of the Globalization Hazard-Moral Hazard Tradeoff

Volume/Issue: 2006/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrique Mendoza , and Ceyhun Bora Durdu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2006

ISBN: 9781451863338

Keywords: Fisherian deflation, globalization hazard, price guarantees, bonds, trading costs, bond, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Fisherian Delfation,

An implication of the "globalization hazard" hypothesis is that sudden stops could be prevented by offering foreign investors price guarantees on emerging markets assets. These guarantees create a tradeoff, however...

2009 Article IV Consultation and Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

2009 Article IV Consultation and Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility »

Source: Ghana : 2009 Article IV Consultation and Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice and Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Ghana

Volume/Issue: 2009/256

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 August 2009

ISBN: 9781451815047

Keywords: debt, deficit, budget, revenues, interest

This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Ghana's overall financial system remains stable. The regulatory and supervisory framework is strong, backed by a modern payment and settlement infrastructure. Finan...

The ASEAN Way
			: Sustaining Growth and Stability

The ASEAN Way : Sustaining Growth and Stability »

Series: Books

Author(s): Ana Corbacho , and Shanaka Peiris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513558905.071

ISBN: 9781513558905

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), ASEAN, ASEAN-5

The first part of the book examines the evolution of monetary policy and prudential frameworks of the ASEAN­5, with particular focus on changes since the Asian financial crisis and the more recent period of unconve...