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Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies

Appendix A. Estimating Pretax and Posttax Global Energy Subsidies »

Source: Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

This appendix describes the data sources and methodologies used for the estimation of subsidies for petroleum products, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Pretax Subsidies...

17 Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing: Evidence from Global Food Aid

17 Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing: Evidence from Global Food Aid »

Source: Helping Countries Develop : The Role of Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Sanjeev Gupta , and Gabriela Inchauste

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2004

ISBN: 9781589063181

Keywords: food aid, expenditure, fiscal policy, public spending, per

1. Introduction The debate on aid effectiveness has largely focused on the impact of aggregate “development assistance” on economic growth or economic development more broadly (Easte...

A Global Integration Strategy for Mediterranean Countries Open Trade and Market Reforms

A Global Integration Strategy for Mediterranean Countries Open Trade and Market Reforms »

Source: A Global Integration Strategy for the Mediterranean Countries : Open Trade and Market Reforms

Series: Books

Author(s): Oleh Havrylyshyn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 1997

ISBN: 9781557756473

Keywords: dynamic gains, free trade, trade diversion, global liberalization, mfn

The economies of the Mediterranean region countries—which in the present study include Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, as well as Israel and Turkey—experie...

A Global Integration Strategy for the Mediterranean Countries
			: Open Trade and Market Reforms

A Global Integration Strategy for the Mediterranean Countries : Open Trade and Market Reforms »

Series: Books

Author(s): Oleh Havrylyshyn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756473.071

ISBN: 9781557756473

Keywords: dynamic gains, free trade, trade diversion, global liberalization, mfn

The economy of the Mediterranean region countries - which in the present study include Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, as well as Israel and Turkey - experienced a period of strong and dyn...

7 Maintaining Competitiveness in the Global Economy

7 Maintaining Competitiveness in the Global Economy »

Source: Exchange Rate Analysis in Support of IMF Surveillance : A Collection of Empirical Studies

Series: Books

Author(s): Charalambos Tsangarides , Carlo Cottarelli , Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Atish Ghosh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2008

ISBN: 9781589067288

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, exchange rate regimes

The appreciation of the rupee in recent years has raised concerns about India’s export competitiveness. Between end-2002 and 2005, the Indian rupee appreciated by 6 percent against the U.S. dollar and by 8 p...

XIX. Poverty and Social Security

XIX. Poverty and Social Security »

Source: Public Expenditure Handbook : A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1991

ISBN: 9781557752222

Keywords: expenditure, public expenditure, military, health care, fiscal policy

How is poverty measured? Which groups are most vulnerable and why? How instructive is industrial...